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70 Mile In Km
The Channel Islands, also known as the Santa Barbara Islands, are an island chain that stretches about 150 miles (240 km) along the Pacific coast of Southern California, and at a distance of about 12-70 miles (20-115 km) of this from this. The islands are divided into two groups. The Santa Barbara Group, separated from the mainland to the north by the Santa Barbara Channel, includes San Miguel Island, Santa Rosa Island, Santa Cruz Island, and Anacapa, a group of three smaller islands. The Santa Catalina Group is separated from the mainland by the San Pedro Channel and the Santa Barbara Outer Channel, and includes the islands of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente. The size of the islands ranges from Santa Cruz (254 square kilometers) to the largest, the smaller Ancapa Islands, which together have an area of about 1.6 square kilometers. Channel Islands National Park includes the Santa Barbara Group and Santa Barbara Island.
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The islands of both groups are rugged and mountainous, and sea caves are common. Their geological structure is related to the Coast Ranges, the Santa Barbara Group, a succession of horizontal ranges, and the Santa Catalina Group, a succession of peninsular ranges. The ocean basins and troughs between the islands reach depths of about 6,000 feet (1,800 m). The islands are known for their unique flora and fauna (about 100 species). Notable are the giant coreopsis, or sunflower tree, and the local island gray fox. Goats, grasses, wildflowers and beach sage are typical plants. Only Santa Cruz and Santa Catalina, a forest covered with pine trees. The islands are breeding grounds for California sea lions, several species of seals and a wide variety of seabirds.
The Channel Islands were once home to two Native American peoples: the Quintet of the Santa Barbara Group and the Gabrielinos of the Santa Catalina Group. The Portuguese navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo visited the islands in 1542 and was buried in one of them. The larger islands were later used for raising sheep and cattle, but these activities ceased. Santa Catalina Island is a popular resort and San Clemente serves as a training ground for the US Navy. In 1969, an oil spill from an underwater well in the Santa Barbara Channel caused widespread environmental damage in the northern islands.
Santa Barbara Island and the Anacapa Group were designated a national monument in 1938. These and three other islands became a national park in 1980 and cover an area of 390 square miles (1,010 km2). The boundary of the park extends one nautical mile (1.9 km) from the coast of Every island, so that about half of its surface is water. The park is located in Ventura on the mainland.
San Miguel, the westernmost of the park’s islands, is managed by the US Navy. It consists of a windswept massif with a rocky coast, and its climate is often rainy and hazy. Santa Rosa Island was leased by its former owners for game hunting; The remains of Pleistocene pygmy mammoths were excavated there. Santa Cruz Island has two rugged expanses (which rise to Mount Diablo at 747 meters in the north), a central valley, and year-round streams and springs. The western nine tenths of the island are owned by the Nature Conservancy, a private environmental organization. The island is home to five Indian settlements. The two islands of Ankapa are plateaus bordered by sea cliffs hundreds of meters high; The cliffs are an important nesting site for the endangered California brown pelican. On Santa Barbara Island, the park’s southernmost island, steep cliffs rise to an ocean terrace with twin peaks.
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