**70 Km In Miles** – To see well, we must stand on the shoulders of giants. 3 laws of mechanics + gravity and calculations. Normal speed << c and small non-quantum

3 First things first Before we can adequately describe motion, we must define our terms clearly. The meaning of some terms used in physics is different from the meaning in everyday usage. Specific and specific meanings make words more useful in describing movement.

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## 70 Km In Miles

Velocity is always distance divided into times. Velocity units can be miles per hour, or meters per second, or kilometers per hour, or inches per minute, etc. Average speed is total distance divided by total time.

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1 km = miles 1 mile = km It’s easy to multiply by dividing by 1.609… can work in the same calculation.

Flagstaff to Phoenix: 140 mi 2.6 hr = 53.8 mph Total trip: 120 mi mi = 260 mi 2.4 hr hr = 5.0 hr s_aver = 260 mi 5.0 hr = 52.0 mph Figure 2.

Flagstaff to Phoenix: 140 mi 2.6 h = 53.8 mph Note: The average speed for the entire trip (52.0 mph) is not the average of the two speeds (51.9 mph). Why? s=d/t=(d1+d2)/(t1+t2) s1+s2=d1/t1+d2/t2 are not the same!!!! Figure 2.02 9

Examples: gallons per minute, pesos per dollar, points per game. Thus, average speed is the rate at which distance is covered in time. Instantaneous velocity is the instantaneous velocity that is apparent at that moment. It is the rate at which distance is covered in an instant. It is found by calculating the average speed, in a short period of time the speed does not vary much (more precisely in the Calculation)

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Average Speed Instantaneous Speed Average Speed Instantaneous Speed The speedometer measures instantaneous speed. (At this point, we’ll discuss why speedometers don’t measure speed.)

12 Instant Speed The speedometer tells us how fast we are going in an instant. Figure 2.03

Average Speed Instant Speed The speed limit represents the maximum legal speed. In some cases, the Highway Patrol uses average speed in cases of speeding. If their average speed exceeds the set limit, they can be 100% sure that their instantaneous speed is above the set limit (Calculation provides accurate instructions and logic).

14 Velocity Velocity is related to the direction of motion as well as how fast an object can go. Velocity is a vector quantity. Vectors have magnitude and direction. Velocity has velocity (velocity) as well as direction (the way the object is moving). A change in velocity can be a change in an object’s speed or in the direction of motion. The speedometer does not indicate direction, so it indicates instantaneous speed, but not speed.

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A car rounds a curve at constant speed. Does the car’s speed change? Yes No In position A, the car has a speed indicated by the arrow (vector) v1. In position B, the car has a velocity indicated by the arrow (vector) v2, with the same magnitude (velocity), but with a different direction.

16 change in velocity velocity is required to change the magnitude (velocity) or direction of the velocity. For the car to make the turn, the friction between the wheels and the road exerts a force to change the direction of the car. To hit the ball against the wall, the wall exerts a force on the ball, causing it to change direction. Figure 2.06

The instantaneous velocity is a vector quantity that has: magnitude (magnitude) equal to the instantaneous velocity in time and direction equal to the direction of motion at that instant. Figure 2.03

Our body does not feel the velocity, if the velocity is constant. Our body feels accelerated. The car changes speed or direction. The elevator accelerates or decelerates. Acceleration can be a change in an object’s speed or direction of motion.

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20 Acceleration (n.) Acceleration is also a vector quantity, with magnitude and direction. The direction of the acceleration vector is the change in velocity, ∆v. Acceleration refers to any change in velocity. We also refer to a decrease in speed (deceleration) as acceleration.

21 Acceleration (n.) The direction of the acceleration vector is the change in velocity, ∆v. If the velocity increases, the acceleration is in the same direction as the velocity.

22 Acceleration (n.) The direction of the acceleration vector is the change in velocity, ∆v. If the velocity decreases, the acceleration is in the opposite direction to the velocity.

23 Acceleration (n.) The direction of the acceleration vector is the change in velocity, ∆v. If the velocity is constant but the direction of the velocity changes, the acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity.

## Miles Per Hour To Kilometer Per Hour

24 Average Acceleration Average acceleration is the change in velocity divided by the time required to produce that change. A unit of speed is a unit of distance divided by a unit of time. A unit of acceleration is a unit of velocity divided by a unit of time. So the units of acceleration are units of (distance divided by time) divided by units of time:

Figure 2.02 A car starting from rest accelerates to a speed of 20 m/s in an eastbound direction in 5 seconds.

Instantaneous acceleration is the instantaneous acceleration that is accurate at that moment. It is the rate at which the velocity changes instantaneously. It is found by calculating the average speed, in a short period of time the speed does not change much. Figure 2.03

27 Motion Graphs To describe the movement of the car, we can observe the position of the car every 5 seconds. Time Position 0 s 0.0 cm 5 s 4.1 cm 10 s 7.9 cm 15 s 12.1 cm 20 s 16.0 cm 25 s 30 s 35 s 18.0 cm

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28 To display data in a table, let the horizontal axis represent time and the vertical axis represent distance. Each interval on the axis represents a fixed amount of distance or time. The first data point is at 0 seconds and 0 cm. The second data point is at 5 seconds and 4.1 cm. etc. Figure 2.14

When is the car moving faster? When is it moving the slowest? When does the car not move? When did the car start moving in the opposite direction? Figure 2.14

30 The slope at any point on a graph of distance versus time represents the velocity at that moment. The slope is the vertical volume change divided by the horizontal volume change. “Get up and run” is similar to everyday meaning: the steepest “incline” is between 0 seconds and 20 seconds. The slope is zero (flat) between 20 s and 30 s, the slope is negative between 50 s and 60 s Figure 2.14

The graph shows the position of the car with respect to time. Does the car ever reverse (assuming no reversing)? Yes, during the first episode (label A). Yes, during the second episode (label B). Yes, during the third part (unlabeled). No, never. The distance covered is reduced during the third part, so at this time the car is moving backwards (in reverse gear).

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Bigger or smaller Just as you can’t see in this graph, instantaneous speeds can be compared by looking at their slopes. A steep slope indicates a greater instantaneous velocity, so the velocity at A will be greater.

33 To summarize the car’s speed data, let the horizontal axis represent time and the vertical axis represent speed. Note that the first graph is distance x time, not speed x time. Velocity is constant whenever the slope of the distance x time graph is constant. The speed changes only when the slope of the road changes. Figure 2.14

Yes, between 0s and 2s. Yes, between 2s and 4s. Yes, between 4 s and 8 sec. Yes, between 0s and 8sec. No, never. The speed is constant between 0 s and 2 seconds. The velocity does not change during this period, and the graph is flat, with a slope of zero.

Between 0 s and 2 sec. Between 2s and 4s. Between 4s and 8s. Acceleration does not change. The graph is the steepest and has the steepest slope between 2 seconds and 4 seconds, the velocity changes most rapidly during this period, resulting in maximum acceleration.

#### Chapter 2 Describing Motion

A car moves along a straight road as shown in the figure. Does it always revert (assuming no return)? Yes, between 0s and 2s. Yes, between 2s and 4s. Yes, between 4 sec and 6 sec. No, never. Even if the velocity decreases between 4 s and 6 s, the velocity is still positive and in the same direction (not negative), so the car does not move backwards.

Point A Point B Point C The acceleration does not change. The speed of the speed is higher when the speed is changing faster. This is where the velocity and time graph is steepest (with the steepest slope).

Between 0 s and 2 sec. Between 2s and 4s.

5.2 miles in km, 4.8 km in miles, 70 miles en km, 3.5 km in miles, 150 km in miles, 10 km in miles, 70 km miles, 180 miles in km, 5 km in miles, 70 miles to km, 300 miles in km, 2.8 km in miles