# 48 Kilometers To Miles

48 Kilometers To Miles – LoRaWAN’s range is only 15 to 30 miles, which is 24 to 48 km. Why not 700 km or 4400 km?

Harald Naumann I help HW developers to quickly integrate/adapt an antenna for wireless IoT devices, increase range, reduce power consumption and achieve radio certification at low cost.

## 48 Kilometers To Miles

In many publications you have repeatedly read about the mystical range of 15 km with LPWAN. Semtech advertises 15 to 30 miles for LoRa or LoRaWAN on their homepage, which is 24 to 48 kilometers. Why not 700 km or 4400 km?

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The range specifications for 15, 24 or 48 km LPWAN do not refer to any mathematical or physical basis for calculation. First, some physical boundary conditions should be mentioned.

In the first approach, we are in space. There, the formula for path loss in free space (F – Path Loss of Free Space, FSPL) applies with c = speed of light, f = frequency, r = radius.

At 1.7 meters from eye level, you can unfortunately only see 4.7 kilometers of coastline. The reason for this was recognized hundreds of years ago by Nicolaus Copernicus.

The earth is not a disk but an ellipse with a mean radius of 6371 km. The problem is also well known in maritime transport. Anyone who takes out a license to sail has to deal with the approach of the light. The viewing range(s) can be calculated according to the following equation:

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To see the 15 km mentioned at the beginning, the observer must stand on a platform 16 m high with an eye height of 1.7 m to reach a height of 17.7 m. Because 17.7 meters at eye level can see 15 kilometers away.

Mobile (LTE) base stations are planned at a height of approximately 30 meters in the city area. At a distance of 30 meters from the eye level, you can already see 19.6 km from the sea to the shore horizon.

However, the horizon is only one of the limits for a radio wave in the range of 868 MHz or LTE-Cat-NB1, 800 to 960 MHz. Semi-optical propagation does not apply to radio waves in the sub-GHz band. In the next step, the wave propagation in the flat field is calculated with the Hata-Okumura model in Egli and the city, abbreviated as the Hata model.

In Egli’s formula, the range is determined by three parameters: the height of the transmitting antenna, the height of the receiving antenna, and the transmitting frequency. If the Egli model is applied and the height of the IoT device is set to 1 m, a link budget of 151 dB for NB-IoT is, for example, 140 m high for a transmission mast for a requested range of 15 km. This should also be located on a plain like the Lüneburg Heath in Germany. The tallest building in the center of the state capital Hanover belongs to the utility company and is 92 meters high. According to Egli, a transmitting antenna mounted on this building can calculate a range of 12 km – if the building is not located in the middle of a large city, but on a flat landscape with few buildings. According to Egli’s model, in order to achieve a range of 48 km, the transmitting antenna should be installed on a 1400 m high tower with an equivalent coupling budget of 151 dB.

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Towers and buildings with a height of 140 m or even 1400 m are rare not only in Germany. The tallest building on Earth is currently the 828 meter Burj Khalifa skyscraper in Dubai. In flat countryside, lacking towers, buildings or hills of the necessary height, ranges of 15 km are not possible with a 151 dB link budget, and even in the Persian Gulf the mystical 48 km cannot be reached. A LoRaWAN node 1.5 meters above the ground cannot achieve a range of 48 km.

Well, the solution is simple. At Borken, the connection was established between a 30 m high mast and a balloon 3.8 km above the ground. We simulate with radio network planning software. 702 km is possible but impractical. In practice, life happens on the ground. In urban areas we have -100 dBm noise. LoRaWAN can achieve only 20 dB of noise reduction. -120 dBm is real and -137 dBm sensitivity can only be achieved in the laboratory. German cities with their private LoRaWAN networks are still taking a cold shower. Why private LoRaWAN cannot work is explained in the Smart City study here: https://www.akoriot.com/white-papers/

Let the LoRaWAN believers sleep. Sooner or later they will realize that there is no range of 24, 38 or 702 km2.

Let’s get back down to earth and look at NeoCortec’s NeoMesh range. NeoCortec claims 100 to 500 meters. NeoCortec doesn’t need to transmit that far. 500 meters is already a lot. I simulated some scenarios with Hata-based software.

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If you assume Hata propagation with 2 antennas at a height of 60 meters, sensitivity of 14 dBm and -94 dBm, you will reach a range of 2.8 km. NeoMesh is only capable of 10 dBm. Forgive the 4 dB error. The result of the simulation is that very long ranges are possible without attenuation of terrain and objects.

If both nodes are located at a height of 1.5 m, a range of 500 m is possible.

For nodes less than 1.5 m, the Hata calculation model is no longer applicable. If the antennas are close to the ground, the Fresnel zone is severely cut off. The ground is in the near field of the antenna. There should be no objects in the near field of the antenna. This greatly interferes with the antenna.

Inside a building, the range is more difficult to determine. Wall damping and reflections can cause signal cancellation or dimming. Since the NeoMesh skips over 15 channels, cancellations are also slightly different. The likelihood of transmission increases. However, it is difficult to calculate the range with very expensive software and a lot of effort.

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I hope I can give you some suggestions. 30 miles with LoRa is a fantasy. Approximately 900 meters are real. 500 meters outdoors is possible with NeoMesh. Indoors you can only check and it is difficult to calculate. An evaluation kit with 4 nodes and a gateway costs just €349. Powering up takes less than an hour and then range testing can begin.

If you need a custom antenna or are starting a new innovative wireless IoT project, I’d be happy to hear from you. Wireless IoT and antennas are my mission. Thank you in advance for your request to harald.naumann (at) lte-modem.com You are using an unsupported browser. This site is designed for current versions of Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox or Safari.

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(a) The clearing agency will apply the following test to determine when an AWS entity has initiated a cost-sharing obligation and therefore must pay an AWS relocater, MSS relocater, or microwave controller with voluntary relocation in accordance with the formula described in § 27.1164:

(1) All or part of the relocated microwave link originally co-channel with the AWS entity’s licensed AWS band(s) or receive ATC authority with selected MSS operator assignments (see § 25.149(a)(2)(i) of this chapter);

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