350 Km To Miles – This article is about the space between celestial bodies. For the general concept, see space. For other uses, see Space (inflection).
The interface between Earth’s surface and space. The Kármán line is shown at an altitude of 100 km (62 mi). While layers of the atmosphere are drawn to scale, objects within them, such as the International Space Station, are not.
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Outer space, commonly referred to simply as space, is the vastness beyond the Earth and its atmosphere and between the celestial bodies. The universe is not completely empty; It is an almost perfect vacuum
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It contains a low particle density, mainly hydrogen and helium plasma, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust and cosmic rays. The core temperature of the universe, as determined by the Big Bang background radiation, is 2.7 Kelvin (−270 °C; −455 °F).
Intergalactic plasma is thought to make up about half of the baryonic (normal) matter in the universe and have a number density of less than one hydrogen atom per cubic meter and a kinetic temperature of millions of Kelvin.
Local constructs of matter collapsed into stars and galaxies. Intergalactic space occupies most of the volume of the universe, but almost all galaxies and star systems consist of empty space. Most of the remaining mass energy in the observable universe consists of dark matter and an unknown form known as dark energy.
The universe does not begin at some height above the surface of the earth. Kármán Line, 100 km (62 mi) above sea level
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Widely used as the origin of space in space contracts and for keeping space records. Parts of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere are sometimes referred to as “near-space”. The framework for international outer space law was established by the Outer Space Treaty, which entered into force on 10 October 1967. The treaty excludes any claim to national sovereignty and allows all countries to freely explore space. Anti-satellite weapons are being tested in Earth orbit despite the drafting of UN resolutions for the peaceful use of outer space.
Humans began physically exploring space in the 20th century with the advent of high-altitude balloon flights. This was followed by manned rocket flight and manned Earth orbit, first achieved by Yuri Gagarin in the Soviet Union in 1961. Human spaceflight is limited to low Earth orbit because the economic costs of sending objects, including humans, into space are too high. and the moon. On the other hand, unmanned spacecraft have reached all known planets in the solar system. Space poses a challenge to human exploration due to the dangers of vacuum and radiation. Microgravity has a negative effect on human physiology, causing muscle atrophy and bone loss.
This is the artist’s conception of the metrical expansion of space, where the volume of the universe is represented by circular segments at each time interval. Depicted on the left is rapid inflation from the initial state, followed by a more even expansion until the first day shown on the right.
A section of Hubble’s ultra-deep field image shows a typical space containing galaxies interspersed with a deep vacuum. Given the finite speed of light, this scenario covers the last 13 billion years of the universe’s history.
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According to the Big Bang theory, the early universe was extremely hot, and this was the case about 13.8 billion years ago.
Spreading rapidly. About 380,000 years later, the universe cooled enough for protons and electrons to combine to form hydrogen—the so-called recombination epoch. When this happened, matter and energy separated, allowing photons to travel freely through the ever-expanding universe.
The material left over from the initial expansion underwent gravitational collapse to form stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects, leaving behind the deep vacuum that forms what we now know as the Universe.
The shape of the early universe was determined by measuring the cosmic microwave background using satellites such as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. These observations show that the spatial geometry of the observable universe is “flat”, meaning that photons on parallel paths at one point remain parallel as they travel through space without local gravity.
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A flat universe combined with the measured mass density of the universe and the rapid expansion of the universe indicates that the universe has non-zero vacuum energy, which we call dark energy.
Estimates put the average energy density of the early universe, including dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter (normal matter made up of atoms), at 5.9 protons per cubic meter. Atoms make up 4.6% of the total energy density, or a density of one proton per four cubic meters.
Space in the universe is obviously not uniform; It ranges from the relatively high density of galaxies – including the very high density of intergalactic structures such as planets, stars and black holes – to conditions in the vast voids, which are much less dense, at least in terms of visible matter.
Unlike matter and dark matter, dark energy does not appear to be concentrated in galaxies: although dark energy accounts for most of the mass energy in the Universe, the effect of dark energy is 5 orders of magnitude smaller than the gravitational effect of matter. and dark matter in Roman paths.
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The universe is the closest approximation to a perfect vacuum. It is effectively frictionless, allowing the stars, planets and moons to move freely in their ideal orbits after the initial stages of formation. The deep vacuum of intergalactic space is not devoid of matter, containing only a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter.
The low density of matter in space means that electromagnetic radiation can travel great distances without scattering: the mean free path of a photon in intergalactic space is about 10.
Nevertheless, extinction, the absorption and scattering of photons in dust and gas, is an important factor in galactic and intergalactic astronomy.
The atmosphere is maintained by the gravitational pull of the stars, planets, and moon. The atmosphere has no clearly marked upper limit: the density of atmospheric gas gradually decreases with distance from the object until it is no longer distinguishable from space.
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Compared to 100,000 Pa for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) standard pressure definition. Above this height, the isotropic pressure of the gas quickly becomes insignificant compared to the radiation pressure of the Sun and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The thermosphere in this region has large gradients in pressure, temperature and composition and is highly variable due to space weather.
As on Earth. Space radiation has a different temperature than the kinetic temperature of the gas, which means that the gas and radiation are not in thermodynamic equilibrium.
The entire observable universe is filled with photons produced during the Big Bang, known as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). (It is very likely that there are large numbers of neutrinos, known as the cosmic neutrino background.
The temperature of gases in space can vary greatly. For example, the temperature of the Boomerang Nebula is 1 K,
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Almost all celestial bodies have detected magnetic fields in space. Star formation in spiral galaxies can produce a small-scale dynamo that generates a turbulent magnetic field of about 5–10 μG. The Davies–Grestein effect causes elongated dust grains to align with the galactic magnetic field, resulting in weak optical polarization. This has been used to demonstrate the existence of ordered magnetic fields in several nearby galaxies. Magneto-hydrodynamic processes in active elliptical galaxies produce their characteristic jets and radio plumes. Among the very distant high-z sources, non-thermal radio sources were detected, indicating the presence of magnetic fields.
Outside of the protective atmosphere and magnetic field, there are few barriers to the passage of ergetic subatomic particles known as cosmic rays through space. These particles have energies in the range of about 10
EV, with about 87% protons, 12% helium nuclei, and 1% heavy nuclei. In the high energy region the electron flux is about 1% of the proton flux.
According to astronauts like Don Pettit, space has a burnt/metallic smell that clings to their suits and equipment, similar to an arc welding torch.
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Because of the dangers of the vacuum, astronauts must wear a pressurized spacesuit when they are outside Earth and outside their spacecraft.
Despite the harsh environment, some life forms have been found that can withstand the extreme conditions of space for long periods of time. Lichen species at the ESA BIOPAN facility survived t days of exposure in 2007.
A strain of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis lived for 559 days when exposed to low Earth orbit or a simulated Martian source.
The lithopanspermia hypothesis suggests that rocks thrown into space from life-bearing planets can successfully transfer life forms to other habitable worlds. Such scarios are thought to have occurred early in the solar system’s history, when Vus, Earth, and Mars exchanged rocks that may have contained microbes.
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Even at relatively low altitudes in the Earth’s atmosphere, conditions are hostile for the human body. those
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