240 Km Into Miles – The radius of the Earth (symbolized as R🜨 or R E }) is the distance from the center of the Earth to a point on or near its surface. Using Earth’s sphericity to estimate Earth’s surface, the radius ranges from a maximum of 6,378 km (3,963 mi) (equatorial radius, dotted A) to a minimum of about 6,357 km (3,950 mi) (polar radius, point A) . b).
The Earth’s radius is sometimes used as a unit of scale in astronomy and geophysics, being the equatorial value recommended by the International Astronomical Union.
240 Km Into Miles
The mean-average cost for these purposes is usually assumed to be 6,371 kilometers (3,959 mi) with a variation of 0.3% (±10 km). The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) provides three reference values: Mean radius (R).
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) of three radii measured at two equatorial points and trees; athelic radius, which is the radius of a sphere with the same surface area (r)
, and volume radius, which is the radius of a circle with the same volume as the ellipse (R).
Other ways of defining and measuring the radius of the Earth include the radius of curvature. Some definitions give values that are not the boundary between the polar radius and the equatorial radius because they include regional or geomorphic topography or because they rely on simple geometrical assumptions.
Scale diagram of the flattened 2003 IERS reference ellipse, with ridges on top. The blue area is the circle. At the outer edge of the blue line is an ellipse with the same minor axis as the circle and the electronegativity of the earth. The red line preserves the Karman Line at 100 km (62 mi) above sea level, while the yellow dot shows the height of the ISS on the lower planet.
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Its shape varies systematically with the entire environment due to Earth’s motion, internal variations, and the force of precipitation.
The nature of the field magnifies the difference, resulting in confusion. To make our explanation of the surface of the world accessible, it must be simplified beyond reality. Therefore, we build models of what the surface of the globe looks like, relying solely on the simplest models that meet the requirements.
Every commonly used model includes some concept of geometric radius. Strictly speaking, spheres are the only solid objects with a radius, but the term radius is used in many places, including those related to the Earth model. The following is a list of parts of the Earth’s surface, ranked from most accurate to most recent:
In the case of geoids and ellipsoids, the distance from each point in the model to a specific sphere is called the “Earth radius” or “Earth radius at that instant”.
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It is also common to refer to each radius of the circle as the “radius of the Earth”. On the other hand, in real-world surface measurements, it is unusual to refer to “radius”, as it has no practical significance. Rather, the height above or below sea level matters.
Regardless of model, each radius falls between the polar minimum of about 6,357 km and the equatorial maximum of about 6,378 km (3,950 to 3,963 mi). Therefore, the Earth is only one-third the distance of a perfect circle, which supports the spherical form in most cases and supports the term “Earth’s radius”. Although different standards differ, the ideas in this article will apply to any planet.
The rotation of the planet makes it look like a flattened ellipsoid/spheroid with one edge at the equator and coinciding with the north and south poles, so that the equatorial radius a is about aq more than the polar radius b. Oblates are always given q
Where ω is the angular frequency, G is the gravitational constant, and M is the mass of the planet.
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For Earth 1/Q ≈ 289, which is close to the inverse flattening example 1/F ≈ 298.257. Furthermore, the reflectance at the equator shows a slow variation. The jet has been diminishing, but drift has increased since 1998, probably due to sea level dispersal by Kurt.
Gravity varies across the surface and in time due to changes in density and crustal thickness, so the surface of the ocean varies from an ellipsoid. This difference is the height of the geoid, positive above or outside the ellipse, negative below or inside. The difference in geoid height on Earth is less than 110 m (360 ft). The height of the geoid can change suddenly due to earthquakes (such as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake) or loss of ice mass (such as Greenland).
Not all corruption comes from within the world. Due to gravitational attraction from the Moon or the Sun, the distance to the Earth’s surface can be as much as one meter in about 12 hours (see Earth’s precipitation).
Al-Biruni’s (973–1048) method of calculating the Earth’s radius made it easier to measure a circle than to measure from two points that were far apart.
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Given local effects on high-altitude transmission, the standards described below are based on a “target” model, which is defined globally as within 5 m (16 ft) of ellipsoidal height and 100 m (330 ft) of mean sea level. refined within. level (ignoring the geoid height).
Also, the radius can be defined by the curvature of the Earth at the same time. Like the torus, the curvature at a point will be greatest (strongest) in one direction (north-south on Earth) and least (smooth) in another direction (east-west).) The radius of curvature is the position of the skeleton from the point and corresponds to the direction. As a result, the distance to the equator is less in the north-south direction than in the east-west direction.
In short, the area variable on the planet defines an “exact” radius. Only one person can accept the form that is appropriate. Since Eratosthes’ design, many models have been built. Historically, these models have been based on geographic regions, which provide the best reference ellipsoid for the region under investigation. As satellite remote sensing, and especially global positioning systems, gained importance, accurate global models were developed, which although not as accurate for local operations, are generally the best near Earth.
It is a well-developed surface, and the calculated Earth size has an uncertainty of ±2 m in both the equatorial and polar directions.
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Other conflicts due to topographical changes may be significant in some places. In determining the position of the scene, using the correct values for the WGS-84 radius may not result in a commensurate improvement in accuracy.
The value of the equatorial radius is defined in WGS-84 to the nearest 0.1 m. The values of the polar radius in this section have been rounded to the nearest 0.1 m, which is expected to be sufficient for most uses. Refer to the WGS-84 ellipsoid if more values are needed for its polar radius.
Three different radii as a function of Earth’s latitude. r is the geometric radius; I is the meridian radius of curvature; and N is the horizontal radius of curvature.
The geocentric radius is the distance from the center of the Earth to the surface of the sphere at the geodetic latitude φ:
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The geocentric extrema on the ellipse correspond to the equatorial and polar radii. They are the vertices of the ellipse and correspond to the minimum and maximum radii of curvature.
Where E is the electronegativity of the earth. This is the radius measured by Eratosthes on his arc.
If one point appears east of another, then the person has an approximately east-west perspective.
The circumference of the Earth, also called the transverse radius of curvature of the Earth, is defined as m and perpendicular (orthogonal) to the geodetic latitude φ.
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N can be defined geometrically as the distance from the surface of the ellipse to the polar axis.
The location of the parallel of latitude is given by p = N cos ( φ ).
N = n| N| }} is the unit normal to the surface at r, and because ∂ r ∂ φ }} and ∂ r ∂ λ }} are tangents to the surface,
The first and second degrees of curvature correspond to the Earth’s radial and vertical points of curvature, respectively.
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Geometrically, the second fundamental form r + d r gives the plane tangent and the distance from r.
The azimuthal curve of the Earth, with the Earth’s normal axis in azimuth (measured clockwise from north) α and in latitude φ, follows from Euler’s curvature formula:
Where K is the Gaussian curvature, K = κ 1 κ 2 = det B det A , kappa _=}} .
The world can be given the shape of a circle in many ways. This section describes the general method. The various lines presented here use the above symbols and dimensions for the Earth as derived from the WGS-84 ellipsoid;
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A spheroid is a large collection of spheres, itself a collection of geoids, with units given in kilometers rather than the millimeter resolution appropriate for this.
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