24 Km To Miles – . Rail Street Journal. Map of the Paris Metropolitan Railway from the Opéra east to Gambetta behind Père Lachaise Cemetery. Until this section was opened, the lines in service were about 24 kilometers (15 mi) long. Line 3, now open, intersects the irregular ellipse formed by the first couple, serving the city’s central boulevards and adding 5 landmarks to the system. The southern section of Line 2 is practically ready for service, with the completion of two bridges over the Seine to form a circuit – one at Passy and one near the Pont de Bercy.
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24 Km To Miles
. Rail Street Journal. Map of the Paris Metropolitan Railway from the Opéra east to Gambetta behind Père Lachaise Cemetery. Until this section was opened, the lines in service were about 24 kilometers (15 mi) long. Line 3, now open, intersects the irregular ellipse formed by the first couple, serving the city’s central boulevards and adding 5 landmarks to the system. The southern part of Line 2 is also practically ready for service, with the completion of two bridges over the Seine to form a circuit with the northern entrance – one at Passy and one near the Bercy bridge. Both these bridges will be ready for service in the first half of 1905. Reference to the accompanying map will show the Metropolitan Railroads, both in service and in construction, and the first. Ray Street. JOURNAL PERSPECTIVE OF CROSS OF THE THRLINES AT PLACE DE LOPERA Trains usually consist of one car and three pilot cars. At peak times, they consist of two cars and five trailers, with the second car placed at the front of the train, depending on availability. Shortly after the August 10, 1903 disaster, both engines were overhauled. Cars must always be attached to the head of the train, where safety is supposed to be greatest, but to the Trocadero it is only 15 to 30 miles on Loravan, which is 24 to 48 km. Why not 700 km or 4400 km?
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You have read over and over again in many posts about the mysterious 15km range using LPWAN. Semtech advertises 15 miles to 30 miles for LoRa or LoRaWAN on their homepage, which would be 24km to 48km. Why not 700 km or 4400 km?
None of the band specifications for 15-, 24-, or 48-km LPWAN indicate mathematical or physical bases for calculation. First, some physical boundary conditions should be mentioned.
In the first approach, we are in space. There, the free space path loss equation (f – free space path loss, FSPL) applies with c = speed of light, f = frequency, and r = radius.
The Street Railway Journal . Map Of The Paris Metropolitan Railway Ing The Opera To The Place Gambetta, Just Beyond Pere Lachaisecemetery In The East. Until The Opening Of This Section,
At 1.7m eye level, unfortunately only 4.7km of the beach can be seen. The reason for this was founded by Nicolaus Copernicus hundreds of years ago.
The Earth is not a disk but an ellipse with a radius of 6371 km. In charging, the problem is also known. Anyone taking out a sailing license must carry a light scope. The range(s) of vision can be calculated according to the following formula:
In order to see the 15 km mentioned at the beginning, the observer must stand on a platform 16 m high at a height of 1.7 m until the eye reaches a height of 17.7 m. Because at an eye level of 17.7 meters, one can see a distance of 15 km.
Mobile base stations (LTE) are planned at a height of about 30 meters in the urban area. At 30 meters, you can already see 19.6 kilometers across the sea to the beach horizon.
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However, the horizon is only 868MHz or in the case of LTE-Cat-NB1 800 to 960MHz in the range of the radio wave. Semi-optical propagation does not apply to radio waves in the sub-GHz band. In the next step, wave propagation is calculated using Egli in the flat countryside and Hata-Okumura model in the city, known as the Hatta model.
In Egli’s formula, the range is determined by three parameters: the height of the transmitting antenna, the height of the receiving antenna, and the transmitting frequency. Applying the Egli model and setting the height of the IoT device to 1m results in a link budget of 151dB for NB-IoT, for example, a height of 140m for a transmission mast for a required range of 15km. This too must be on a plain like the Lüneburg Heath in Germany. The tallest building in the center of the state capital Hanover is owned by a public utility company and is 92 meters tall. According to Eglie, a transmitting antenna mounted on such a building can only estimate a range of 12 kilometers – if the building is not located in the middle of a large city, but on a flat landscape with few buildings. To achieve a range of 48 km, a transmitting antenna with a link budget of 151 dBm should be installed on a 1,400-meter-high tower, as per Eegili’s model.
Towers and buildings with a height of 140 meters or 1400 meters are rare, and not only in Germany. Burj Khalifa in Dubai is currently the tallest skyscraper in the world at 828 meters. In flat rural areas, it is impossible to achieve a range of 15 km with a link budget of 151 dB, due to the lack of towers, buildings or mountains of the necessary height, and even 48 km in the Persian Gulf. A range of 48 km cannot be achieved with a Loravan node at 1.5 meters above the ground.
Well, the solution is simple. A 30-meter-high mast in Borkan was connected to a balloon 3.8 kilometers above the ground. We simulated this using radio network planning software. 702 km is possible but not practical. In practice, life takes place on Earth. In urban areas, we have -100 dB noise. LoRaWAN only gets 20dB less noise. -120dB true and -137dB sensitivity achieved in the lab alone, unless you add building attenuation and limit antennas to 20-30m for the gateway, you get 800-900m range according to Hata. German cities with their private LoRaWAN networks are still getting cold rain. The Smart City study here explains why your LoRaWAN won’t work: https://www.akoriot.com/white-papers/
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Believers can be left to lie awake. Sooner or later they will realize that there is no such thing as 24, 38 or 702 square kilometers.
Let’s come back down to earth and look at the Neomesh range from Neocortech. Neocortec says 100 to 500 meters. NeoCortec does not want to move this limit. 500 meters is already plenty. I have simulated some scenarios using Hata based software.
If you assume two antennas 60m high, 14dBi sensitivity and 94dBm spread, you get a range of 2.8km. Neomesh is only capable of 10dB and will forgive 4dB of error. The result of the simulation is that a much longer range is possible without attenuation from Earth and objects.
If both nodes are located at a height of 1.5 m, their range can be up to 500 m.
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For nodes less than 1.5 m high, the Hata calculation model is no longer valid. If the antennas are close to the ground, the Fresnel zone will be severely cut off. Earth in the field near the antenna. There should be no objects in the field near the antenna. This disturbs the antenna a lot.
Inside a building, scoping is more difficult. Walls weaken and reflections cancel or degrade the signal. As Neomesh goes to 15 channels, the cancellations change a bit too. The potential for transmission increases. However, calculating the range is difficult with expensive software and a lot of effort.
I hope you can give me some suggestions. 48 km with Laura is a fantasy. About 900 meters are real. 500m outdoor is possible with NeoMesh. Inside, you can only try it, it is difficult to calculate. The eval kit with 4 nodes and gateway costs only 349 euros. Switching takes less than an hour
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